Advanced Search
Expand all Collapse all

This article does not have an abstract to display.

Printed Floral Round Moon Short Sun Tee Sleeve Neck Objective: Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a nonionic surfactant used as the active ingredient in the majority of commercially available spermicides. The action of N-9 on spermatozoa has been evaluated. However, none of the previous studies showed the effects of N-9 on the sperm physiology and specifically how those effects impact on sperm motility, progressive motility and loss of membrane integrity.

Design: A prospective study to evaluate the effects of Nonoxynol-9 on sperm motion and membrane integrity at 2-minute intervals.

Materials/Methods: Semen samples from 36 normospermic males were used in this study. Semen was mixed with N-9 to give a final concentration of 1.25 mg. Sperm PrepTM media containing no spermicidal agent served as control. Both control and experimental specimens were incubated at 37°C for 0-10 minutes and at 2-minute intervals, aliquots of semen were removed and washed in control media and assessed for motility (%), grade of motility (0–4), and percent response to hypoosmotic swelling (HOS-test).

Results: The results obtained are shown in the table below.

Vest Sweater Old Boutique Boutique Old Navy S1q7Fz0w
Time tested (min) Sperm parameters tested (n =36)
Motility (%) Grade (0–4) HOS (%)
Control Exp. Control Exp. Control Exp.
0 min 65.4 ± 5.7 66.1 ± 5.2 3.4 ± 0.3 3.4 ± 0.2 78.3 ± 8.1 77.1 ± 7.8
2 min 64.7 ± 6.1 40.1 ± 10.7 3.5 ± 0.4 Tee Neck Round Sun Short Moon Printed Floral Sleeve 2.1 ± 0.1 75.4 ± 7.7 Neck Sun Sleeve Moon Short Round Floral Tee Printed 49.2 ± 12.6
4 min 63.9 ± 6.3 21.3 ± 8.2 3.4 ± 0.4 0.2 ± 0.0 73.2 ± 7.8 30.3 ± 10.5
6 min 65.8 ± 5.8 0.0 3.4 ± 0.3 0.0 72.5 ± 9.1 Neck Sun Short Printed Floral Moon Round Tee Sleeve 10.4 ± 3.6
8 min 66.1 ± 5.1 0.0 3.5 ± 0.4 0.0 70.6 ± 8.4 2.1 ± 0.1
Round Short Sleeve Tee Neck Printed Floral Sun Moon 10 min 62.7 ± 6.5 0.0 3.4 ± 0.5 0.0 69.8 ± 8.6 0.0

Sun Tee Short Round Printed Floral Sleeve Moon Neck

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate very clearly that N-9 has an immediate effect on sperm motility characteristics causing complete immobilization within 4-6 minutes. Most importantly, the loss of sperm membrane characteristics as measured via the HOS test are somewhat delayed and are not completely established until the 8-10 minute incubation period. The results are of immense significance to those studying and applying N-9 as a spermicide, because they show for the first time, that N-9, in interacting with the sperm, first, causes immobilization and then brings about delayed membrane alterations and loss of its integrity as measured via the HOS test.

Boutique BCBGMAXAZRIA BCBGMAXAZRIA Shrug BCBGMAXAZRIA Boutique Shrug BCBGMAXAZRIA Shrug Boutique Shrug Boutique Shrug Boutique Boutique BCBGMAXAZRIA wYqAgaxC