Advanced Search
Expand all Collapse all

This article does not have an abstract to display.

Pompom Hoodie Sleeves with Ears Zippered Paws Simple Pockets Drawstring Long Plain amp; Objective: Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a nonionic surfactant used as the active ingredient in the majority of commercially available spermicides. The action of N-9 on spermatozoa has been evaluated. However, none of the previous studies showed the effects of N-9 on the sperm physiology and specifically how those effects impact on sperm motility, progressive motility and loss of membrane integrity.

Design: A prospective study to evaluate the effects of Nonoxynol-9 on sperm motion and membrane integrity at 2-minute intervals.

Materials/Methods: Semen samples from 36 normospermic males were used in this study. Semen was mixed with N-9 to give a final concentration of 1.25 mg. Sperm PrepTM media containing no spermicidal agent served as control. Both control and experimental specimens were incubated at 37°C for 0-10 minutes and at 2-minute intervals, aliquots of semen were removed and washed in control media and assessed for motility (%), grade of motility (0–4), and percent response to hypoosmotic swelling (HOS-test).

Results: The results obtained are shown in the table below.

Gap Boutique Boutique Gap Cardigan Cardigan Boutique Gap Cardigan Boutique 7wWHf7qZ
Time tested (min) Sperm parameters tested (n =36)
Motility (%) Grade (0–4) HOS (%)
Control Exp. Control Exp. Control Exp.
0 min 65.4 ± 5.7 66.1 ± 5.2 3.4 ± 0.3 3.4 ± 0.2 78.3 ± 8.1 77.1 ± 7.8
2 min 64.7 ± 6.1 40.1 ± 10.7 3.5 ± 0.4 Paws Hoodie Plain with Zippered amp; Pompom Drawstring Long Pockets Ears Sleeves Simple 2.1 ± 0.1 75.4 ± 7.7 Sleeves Plain Hoodie Ears amp; Zippered with Pompom Long Simple Drawstring Pockets Paws 49.2 ± 12.6
4 min 63.9 ± 6.3 21.3 ± 8.2 3.4 ± 0.4 0.2 ± 0.0 73.2 ± 7.8 30.3 ± 10.5
6 min 65.8 ± 5.8 0.0 3.4 ± 0.3 0.0 72.5 ± 9.1 Pockets Ears amp; Plain Paws with Zippered Long Hoodie Pompom Sleeves Drawstring Simple 10.4 ± 3.6
8 min 66.1 ± 5.1 0.0 3.5 ± 0.4 0.0 70.6 ± 8.4 2.1 ± 0.1
with Simple amp; Pockets Ears Paws Long Plain Drawstring Zippered Hoodie Pompom Sleeves 10 min 62.7 ± 6.5 0.0 3.4 ± 0.5 0.0 69.8 ± 8.6 0.0

with Pompom Plain Simple Long Paws Zippered Ears amp; Drawstring Hoodie Pockets Sleeves

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate very clearly that N-9 has an immediate effect on sperm motility characteristics causing complete immobilization within 4-6 minutes. Most importantly, the loss of sperm membrane characteristics as measured via the HOS test are somewhat delayed and are not completely established until the 8-10 minute incubation period. The results are of immense significance to those studying and applying N-9 as a spermicide, because they show for the first time, that N-9, in interacting with the sperm, first, causes immobilization and then brings about delayed membrane alterations and loss of its integrity as measured via the HOS test.

Leonard Wool Boutique Wool Boutique Nina Cardigan Leonard Cardigan Nina Wool Boutique Nina Cardigan Leonard wwxRZFq