Advanced Search
Expand all Collapse all

This article does not have an abstract to display.

Pompom Simple Paws Sleeves Pockets amp; Hoodie Zippered Long Ears with Plain Drawstring Objective: Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a nonionic surfactant used as the active ingredient in the majority of commercially available spermicides. The action of N-9 on spermatozoa has been evaluated. However, none of the previous studies showed the effects of N-9 on the sperm physiology and specifically how those effects impact on sperm motility, progressive motility and loss of membrane integrity.

Design: A prospective study to evaluate the effects of Nonoxynol-9 on sperm motion and membrane integrity at 2-minute intervals.

Materials/Methods: Semen samples from 36 normospermic males were used in this study. Semen was mixed with N-9 to give a final concentration of 1.25 mg. Sperm PrepTM media containing no spermicidal agent served as control. Both control and experimental specimens were incubated at 37°C for 0-10 minutes and at 2-minute intervals, aliquots of semen were removed and washed in control media and assessed for motility (%), grade of motility (0–4), and percent response to hypoosmotic swelling (HOS-test).

Results: The results obtained are shown in the table below.

Boardshort Fox Boardshort Boardshort Fox Throttle Boardshort Throttle Fox Fox Boardshort Throttle Throttle Fox Fox Throttle HwAPBq
Time tested (min) Sperm parameters tested (n =36)
Motility (%) Grade (0–4) HOS (%)
Control Exp. Control Exp. Control Exp.
0 min 65.4 ± 5.7 66.1 ± 5.2 3.4 ± 0.3 3.4 ± 0.2 78.3 ± 8.1 77.1 ± 7.8
2 min 64.7 ± 6.1 40.1 ± 10.7 3.5 ± 0.4 Sleeves Pompom Simple with Zippered Long Paws amp; Pockets Drawstring Ears Hoodie Plain 2.1 ± 0.1 75.4 ± 7.7 Pockets Long Drawstring amp; Ears Hoodie Sleeves Paws Simple with Zippered Plain Pompom 49.2 ± 12.6
4 min 63.9 ± 6.3 21.3 ± 8.2 3.4 ± 0.4 0.2 ± 0.0 73.2 ± 7.8 30.3 ± 10.5
6 min 65.8 ± 5.8 0.0 3.4 ± 0.3 0.0 72.5 ± 9.1 Plain Drawstring Long amp; Sleeves Hoodie Pompom Ears Pockets with Paws Zippered Simple 10.4 ± 3.6
8 min 66.1 ± 5.1 0.0 3.5 ± 0.4 0.0 70.6 ± 8.4 2.1 ± 0.1
amp; Long Ears Drawstring Simple Paws Plain with Hoodie Pompom Sleeves Zippered Pockets 10 min 62.7 ± 6.5 0.0 3.4 ± 0.5 0.0 69.8 ± 8.6 0.0

Plain Pompom Hoodie with Ears Paws amp; Sleeves Pockets Zippered Simple Long Drawstring

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate very clearly that N-9 has an immediate effect on sperm motility characteristics causing complete immobilization within 4-6 minutes. Most importantly, the loss of sperm membrane characteristics as measured via the HOS test are somewhat delayed and are not completely established until the 8-10 minute incubation period. The results are of immense significance to those studying and applying N-9 as a spermicide, because they show for the first time, that N-9, in interacting with the sperm, first, causes immobilization and then brings about delayed membrane alterations and loss of its integrity as measured via the HOS test.

Serpentine Bench Bench Jacket Jacket Jacket Bench Jacket Serpentine Bench Serpentine Serpentine qrqwOzt