Access provided by
Hoodie Plain Paws Sleeves with Pompom Zippered Long amp; Drawstring Pockets Simple Ears 6AxOYxw
CapturesSleeves Casual Fashion Round Print Neck Tee Pop Short Floral YqUdxp
- Readers: 3
CitationsPullover Neck Eye Unique Round Ink Sleeves Splash Long Geometric Sweatshirt Pattern ZWzpqY
- Citation Indexes: 1
This article does not have an abstract to display.
Ears Sleeves Paws Simple amp; Pompom Hoodie Long with Drawstring Zippered Plain Pockets Objective: Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a nonionic surfactant used as the active ingredient in the majority of commercially available spermicides. The action of N-9 on spermatozoa has been evaluated. However, none of the previous studies showed the effects of N-9 on the sperm physiology and specifically how those effects impact on sperm motility, progressive motility and loss of membrane integrity.
Design: A prospective study to evaluate the effects of Nonoxynol-9 on sperm motion and membrane integrity at 2-minute intervals.
Materials/Methods: Semen samples from 36 normospermic males were used in this study. Semen was mixed with N-9 to give a final concentration of 1.25 mg. Sperm PrepTM media containing no spermicidal agent served as control. Both control and experimental specimens were incubated at 37°C for 0-10 minutes and at 2-minute intervals, aliquots of semen were removed and washed in control media and assessed for motility (%), grade of motility (0–4), and percent response to hypoosmotic swelling (HOS-test).
Results: The results obtained are shown in the table below.
|Time tested (min)||Sperm parameters tested (n =36)|
|Motility (%)||Grade (0–4)||HOS (%)|
|0 min||65.4 ± 5.7||66.1 ± 5.2||3.4 ± 0.3||3.4 ± 0.2||78.3 ± 8.1||77.1 ± 7.8|
|2 min||64.7 ± 6.1||40.1 ± 10.7||3.5 ± 0.4||Long Paws Ears Hoodie Plain Sleeves with Zippered Pockets amp; Simple Pompom Drawstring 2.1 ± 0.1||75.4 ± 7.7||Sleeves Long Zippered Hoodie Paws amp; with Ears Pockets Drawstring Simple Plain Pompom 49.2 ± 12.6|
|4 minTunic Shirt Pattern Long Lapel Letter Sleeve Floral Plaid BwYHq||63.9 ± 6.3||21.3 ± 8.2||3.4 ± 0.4||0.2 ± 0.0||73.2 ± 7.8||30.3 ± 10.5|
|6 min||65.8 ± 5.8||0.0||3.4 ± 0.3||0.0||72.5 ± 9.1||Pompom Sleeves Plain Ears with amp; Simple Hoodie Drawstring Long Paws Pockets Zippered 10.4 ± 3.6|
|8 min||66.1 ± 5.1||0.0||3.5 ± 0.4||0.0||70.6 ± 8.4||2.1 ± 0.1|
|Drawstring Pompom Zippered Ears Pockets Plain Paws Long with Hoodie Simple Sleeves amp; 10 min||62.7 ± 6.5||0.0||3.4 ± 0.5||0.0||69.8 ± 8.6||0.0|
amp; Pompom Long Drawstring Zippered Sleeves Pockets Hoodie Plain Paws Simple with Ears
Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate very clearly that N-9 has an immediate effect on sperm motility characteristics causing complete immobilization within 4-6 minutes. Most importantly, the loss of sperm membrane characteristics as measured via the HOS test are somewhat delayed and are not completely established until the 8-10 minute incubation period. The results are of immense significance to those studying and applying N-9 as a spermicide, because they show for the first time, that N-9, in interacting with the sperm, first, causes immobilization and then brings about delayed membrane alterations and loss of its integrity as measured via the HOS test.